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Welcome Everybody

Hello - Welcome. The purpose of this site is to document my experiences photographing wildlife and nature throughout Australia and abroad.  I hope you find the content interesting and educational, and the images  cause you to reflect on how important it is preserve natural places and their inhabitants.

All wildife has been photographed in the wild and animals are NOT captive or living in enclosures.

For me photography of the natural world is more than just pretty settings and cuddly animal photos. It's a concern for the environment and the earth all living creatures must share.

Note that images appearing in journal posts are often not optimally processed due to time constraints.

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Conservation Matters.....


Spring and Summer is Flower Season in Tasmania

Spring and summer in Tasmania is flower season and the diversity of flowers, indigenous or introduced, is staggering. 

LEFT:  Tiger Lily (Lilium) showing pollen abundant stamens and sticky pistil (click to enlarge).

The Tiger Lily (Lilium) grows from a bulb and has large prominent flowers.  It is endemic to the temperate zone in the northern hemisphere, where it can be found woodland, grassland and montane habitats.  The flowers are large, often fragrant, and come in a range of colours including whites, yellows, oranges, pinks, reds and purples. Markings include spots and brush strokes.


Lilys are pollinated primarily by butterflies and bees, which are attracted to the bright colours of the flower pedals (modified leaves that have evolved specially to aid in the pollination of the plant).  The insects move between flowers anciently rubbing themselves on the large and well developed stamens; pollen easily attaches to the body of the insect and is then transported from one plant to the next where it becomes attached to the sticky pistil.  From the pistil, the pollen works its way down the style and into the ovary. There, seeds are formed within a small pod.


Plants tend to have their scent output at maximal levels only when the flowers are ready for pollination and when its potential pollinators are active. Plants that maximize their output during the day are primarily pollinated by bees or butterflies, whereas those that release their fragrance mostly at night are pollinated by moths and bats.


Ovary Female reproductive organ of the flower.

Pedals - Petals are modified leaves that surround the reproductive parts of flowers.

Stamens - The portion of the flower that carries the pollen.

Style - The part of a flower stalk where the parts of the flower are attached.

Pistil - The female reproductive part of the flower, usually centrally positioned leading to the style, ovary and other internal parts of the flower.


Eastern Spinebills (Acanthorhynchus tenuirostris) - Tasmania

The Eastern Spinebill (Acanthorhynchus tenuirostris) is a species of Australian honeyeater that is inhabits dry sclerophyll forests, scrub and woodland from Northern Queensland through New South Wales, Victoria, parts of South Australia and the Island state of Tasmania. The species is highly adaptable and is often found in urban gardens in which there are sufficient vegetation to act as cover and food.

LEFT:  Male Eastern Spinebill feeds on introduced flowers (click to enlarge).

The eastern species is not to be confused with the Western Spinebill which inhabits Western Australia; this spinebill, although belonging to the same Genus is a separate species.  Evolutionary scientists believe that both species derived from a cosmopolitan ancestor due to climatic change.  At some time in the past, desertification separated the species into two geographical locations on each side of Australia.  Over time, each population evolved into a distinct species.

Spinebills are small and fast and vary rarely perch for an extended period of time.  To provide the energy to support their fast lifestyle the birds rely on nectar from a number of indigenous and introduced plants.  The beak of the spinebill has evolved into a long and slender device that is ideal for removing nectar from a number of plants including the blooms of gum trees, mistletoe, heaths, grevilleas and banksias.  In addition to nectar (akin to rocket fuel) spinebills frequently prey on small insects and other invertebrates which are often captured on the wing.

The spinebill has evolved an interesting adaptation to counter against periods in which flowers are abundant, but the nectar supply is low.  During mast flowering years, plants may product copious numbers of flowers, but not a lot of nectar.  During these periods, the spinebill will store fat, increase the amount of time feeding, or lower its metabolic rate to a level similar to night-time levels.

LEFT:  Female Eastern Spinebill.  Note the differing pattern on the chest and the slightly drab colours in relation to the male in the upper image (click to enlarge).

Male spinebills sport rufus coloured feathers with a blaze of white across their chest.  The colour can appear very bright, especially in the low light of the morning or afternoon.  By comparison, females have rather dull colours.  It is with these bright colours that the males present to the females, in the hope of a successful application to reproduction rights.

Spinebills breed from August through December and make a small cup-style nest constructed from bark and grass and lined with feathers.  The clutch produced is usually two; however, four can be produced in good years.  The female incubates the eggs for around 16 days.  Both parents care and feed for the chicks.

To see further photographs of spinebills, navigate to the photograph archive and type in 'honeyeaters or spinebill'.


Cosmopolitan – A term referring to wide ranging

Mast Flowering – Flowering events in which plants produce large numbers of flowers, often with a overall resultant decline in nectar.


Why Do Zebras Have Stripes

Africa is the repository for a number of remarkable animals; however, the black and white striped Plains Zebra (Equus quagga), known locally as the tiger horse is often overlooked.   The reason why this particular animal is decorated with such a striking pattern of stripes, not observed in other hoofed animals, has often been discussed in scientific circles.

LEFT:  Plains Zebra (Equus quagga), known locally as the tiger horse (click to enlarge).

Wallace and Darwin

In the late 1800’s, Alfred Russel Wallace and Charles Darwin debated the striped pattern and proposed several ideas.  The main argument being that the alternating black and white stripes had evolved to act as a form of camouflage, by disrupting predatory attack by visually confusing carnivores.  A similar disruptive camouflage pattern is often used to paint naval ships and can be seen on military uniforms; the stripes tend to break up the outline of a solid object.  Another suggestion was that the stripes could act as a social mechanism; zebras live in herds of several or more individuals, while a third hypothesis was the possibility that striping was used as a mechanism for heat management - white reflects heat whilst black absorbs heat.

Flies and Body Hair

Recently, the conundrum was solved when a group of scientists discovered that stripes act as a deterrent to attack from horseflies and tsetse flies.  Although the exact reason to why flies find striped surfaces unattractive is not yet known, the reason to why zebras have stripes, in contrast to other hoofed animals was revealed.

For the most part African hoofed mammals have longish body hair that protects them from hungry-biting insects; the mouth parts of the flies are not long enough to penetrate the length of hair.  Zebras on the other hand have very short body hair and the skin is easily reached bythe  hungry blood-sapping flies.

To provide evidence to support the scientist’s hypothesis, biologists mapped the worldwide geographic distribution of zebra species, noting the thickness, location and intensity of striping, within a range of variables such as: temperature, predators and habitat.   They then mapped the distribution of horseflies and tsetse flies and examined the areas where variables overlapped.    The results indicated that zebra striping was more pronounced, thicker and darker in areas of overlap.  Furthermore, it was observed that striping was more pronounced during periods of high fly reproduction.

LEFT:  The pattern of stripes can be confusing to predators when the zebra is at the trot (click to enlarge).

Although some of Wallace’s theories may hold water in that there is a possibility that striping has other advantages, such as camouflage; this is not the evolutionary driver for striping.  It would appear that evolution, in zebra species, has selected black and white stripes as an effective means to combat insect attack.


 Caro, T., et al,. 2014, Function of Zebra Stripes.  Nature Communications  5, Article number: 3535


The herd of zebra was captured in the Maasai Mara National Reserve, a large game reserve in Narok County, Republic of Kenya.  The 'Mara' is contiguous with the Serengeti National Park in Mara Region, Tanzania.  The video particularly shows the intensity of the striping.


Moray Eels - Diverse, Colourful and Photogenic

Morays eels may look fearsome and no doubt have intimated more than a handful of divers and snorkelers; however, to say they were dangerous animals would be misnomer. 

LEFT: Black-spotted Moray Eel, (Gymnothorax favagineus).  A large eel that reaches 2 meters in length, Indonesia (click image to enlarge).

Moray eels belong to the family Muraenidae and are cosmopolitan, meaning they inhabit tropical and sub-tropical seas globally.  Despite their snake-like appearance, moray eels are not reptiles but are fish that have evolved to inhabit a different niche to other fish species.  Morays are often the dominant predators within a community.

There are approximately 200 different species of moray eel that range in size from a few centimetres to 2 meters in length.  They have adapted well to their niche and most morays sport large eyes which enhance their light-resolving ability when hunting in crevices, caves, and at night. 

Moray eels have a narrow head, an elongated body which is slightly flattened towards the tail, and a lack of pectoral and anal fins leads to their serpentine appearance.  Their jaws are normally large with sharp incisory teeth.    The teeth of animal are usually a very good indicator to the prey it selectively hunts.

Moray eels are carnivores and the moray’s pointy teeth are ideal for capturing fish, crustaceans, molluscs and even other eels.   Although for the most part solitary, morays have been known to co-operate with other species such as cod, grouper, sharks and even ingenious spear fisherman to obtain food.  

Pharyngeal Jaws

An interesting evolution observed in moray eels are pharyngeal jaws .  Simply explained, morays have a second set of jaws in their throat that contain teeth.  When feeding these inner jaws can be projected into their mouth cavity whereby they grasp the prey and dislodge flesh before transporting the food into the back of throat and into the digestive system. 

LEFT:  Diagram showing pharyngeal jaws in moray eel.  Moray eels are the only animals that use pharyngeal jaws to actively capture and restrain prey  (diagram copyright).

Once the prey has been seized, the eel twisted onto itself to remove a bite-sized portion of food.  A moray eel does not have the ability to chew its food and swallow as do other fish.  Because of the narrow head, it is unable to create negative pressure used to swallow prey.  The pharyngeal jaws are therefore very important.


Unlike other fish, morays do not have scales.  To protect their skin they secrete a slimy mucus.  In some species the mucous contains toxins which provide self-defensive against other animals that may prey on the eel.  The slimy skin aids in locomotion (slithering into and out tight locations), makes it difficult for a predator to grasp the eel and, in some species assists in burrow-building.  Ribbon eels (Rhinomuraena quaesita) often live in sand burrows and the mucous is used to cement sand grains together to provide a solid wall for the burrow.


Interestingly moray eels are not live-bearing but are oviparous, which means that sperm and eggs are fertilized outside of the womb in the surrounding water. 

When morays spawn they release thousands of eggs which can develop into larvae which become part of the plankton that drift in the ocean currents.  After a year or so, the larvae mature and can swim the sea floor to join whatever community that maybe living there.

LEFT:  Whitemouth Moray Eel, (Gymnothorax meleagris).  An uncommon eel observed in Indonesia (click image to enlarge).

Undeserved Reputation

Their fearsome reputation (which is unwarranted) has been generated from the method they use to breathe (removing oxygen from seawater).  A moray must continually open and close its mouth to generate a current of water that is passed over small circular gills which are located toward the rear of the mouth.

Moray eels are not aggressive and if treated with respect will not attack a diver.  However, if you wave your gloved-finger in front of their face then expect a reaction – not because it’s a finger but because the waving action and colour resembles a small fish.  

LEFT:  Fimbriated Moray Eel, (Gymnothorax fimbriatus).  An eel not observed that often (click image to enlarge).  Photographically, morays are of interest due to their morphology, differing camouflage patterns and often kaleidoscope of colours. 

I can recall a dive in Japan when I was foolish enough to wave a non-gloved finger in front of a smallish, but brightly coloured dragon eel.  The result was not unexpected; the eel removed a large chuck of flesh from the side of my index finger.

I always keep a lookout for these fascinating creatures when diving, and if I see a moray, I stop and observe its behaviour and marvel at its evolution and often ornate and colourful markings.  


Where Have All The Fish Gone... Diving Weda Island, Indonesia

Four weeks SCUBA diving in Indonesia sounds like a good way to spend some time; however, swimming in an ocean devoid of anything larger than a sardine becomes worrisome in relation to the overall health of the reef ecosystem.

I was diving in the coral triangle in northern Indonesia based at Weda Island; a small island adjacent to Halmahera Island, the largest island in the northern archipelago, a region made famous by the nineteenth century naturalist Alfred Wallace and his discovery of the Standard-wing Bird of Paradise.  

Coral Triangle

The Coral Triangle is a geographical term referring to a rough triangular area of tropical water between Indonesia, Papua New Guinea and the Philippines.  The triangle encompasses two biological rich areas of marine biodiversity. 

LEFT:  Map of Coral Triangle  courtesy (  Click to enlarge.

Weda Island lies midway between the northern and southern regions; an area susceptible to strong currents, water transports large volumes of larvae which form the building blocks of a complex marine web and ecosystem.

Few Fish and Invertebrates.   Siltation from Mining Operations

I became concerned after completion of several dives in habitats from near shore to coastal coral platforms and deep oceanic drop offs.  There was something missing – FISH; in particular, anything larger than a “sardine”.  There also was a general lack of invertebrates.  It was as if the coral home was open but the inhabitants had left for the day...

Despite the lack of fish and critters, coral diversity on the outer reefs was excellent with massive and delicate corals growing from near surface to 30 plus meters.  Unfortunately, two Chinese owned mining operations have caused siltation on inner shore reefs and inshore corals are degraded.  So where were the reef dwellers?

Warm Water, Climate Change and Over Fishing

Certainly tidal currents and the moon phase can affect the presence of predators; however, I spent a month in this area and the results were the same for nearly every dive – very minimal fish life, poor invertebrate diversity, and no sharks whatsoever!  

In some areas the water was incredibly warm and the effects of temperature increase could readily be observed in some coral species in the form of bleaching.

The stress factor most commonly associated with bleaching is elevated sea temperature, but additional stresses such as high light intensity, low salinity and pollutants are known to exacerbate coral bleaching.  If the causal stress is too great or for too long, corals can die.

Reef corals are very sensitive to sea temperatures outside their normal range.  Elevated temperatures of 1 Degree Celcius above the long term monthly summer average are enough to cause coral bleaching in many dominant coral species.

When temperatures exceed threshold levels for long enough, the symbiotic relationship between the zooxanthellae and the corals breaks down and bleaching results. If stressful conditions prevail for long enough, the corals may bleach and die. However, if stressful conditions abate, then the bleached corals can recover their symbiotic algae and return to their normal, healthy colour. The severity of bleaching can vary substantially according to water depth, location and species of corals.

Is commercial over fishing, the local effects of nutrient run off from farming and industrial practices (mining), and perhaps the warming effect of global warming (current change and coral bleaching) beginning to be realized.


Not seeing and watching fish, I did observe several Crown-of-Thorns starfish (Acanthaster planci) during my dives.  Although this species can reach plague proportions decimating corals (they feed on the coral polyps), the sighting of a few animals does not in itself present a problem.

LEFT:  Acanthaster planci is a large starfish that can consume live coral polyps at an alarming rate.  Click to enlarge.

The crown-of-thorns starfish (Acanthaster planci) is a coral eating starfish or sea star native to coral reefs in the Indo-Pacific region. They are named after the dense spines radiating from their arms and they belong to the same group as all starfish, sea urchins, sea cucumbers and brittlestars.

Crown-of-thorns starfish are an important functional species on healthy coral reefs. They feed on the fastest growing corals such as staghorns and plate corals, allowing slow growing coral species to form colonies, therefore increasing coral diversity.

Is it Too Late ?

I have been diving since the late 1970’s and can remember vividly the days when sharks did worry you, there were too many fish to see anything past a few meters and the corals were strongly coloured without showing the effects of bleaching.  

Is it too late?  Over the last ten years I’ve observed a downfall in many areas that were previously teaming with fish and other marine life.  Areas of Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands and parts of Australia that are “off the beaten track” and did have large number of fish now produce little…  

On another trip to Indonesia, I was very conscious that at night, several large fishing boat flotillas passed our live-aboard dive boat - stripping the reef of the very fish we had seen the day before…

I believe the years are numbered in which newly-minted divers will experience what was seen by earlier generations.  The over fishing, habitat destruction, lack of international pollution control, burdening populations in many coastal nations, and the need to feed people and profit from the oceans has taken its toll.

Whilst not every food species is directly affected, there is a flow-through effect that occurs when you remove one particular species from the chain, or reduce its numbers to near extinction (for example, sharks, tuna and predatory coral fish). 

The next decade will be decisive to the overall state of environment concerning the marine ecosystem.